Important Climate Change Laws in India
- The Environmental Protection Act of 1986 is the most important legislation with respect to climate changes in India. The Act confers power on the Central and State government for the purpose of – First, protecting and improving the quality of the environment. Second, preventing and abating environmental pollution.
- The Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act of 1981 is innovative legislation that lets the State regulate the standard for emission of air pollutants. The Act empowers the State to inspect any factory and check any control equipment and manufacturing process. It further allows the State to take the necessary steps for the control of air pollution. No industry can operate without meeting the requirements mentioned in this act.
- The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 was enacted to govern the National Green Tribunal. These Tribunals were established to ensure the fast and effective disposal of cases that relate to the protection of the environment. These tribunals also have jurisdiction over cases where a substantial question relating to the environment arises.
- The Energy Conservation Act of 2001 was enacted to provide a legal framework for the efficient use of energy. It does this by ensuring that only energy efficient equipment is provided to consumers and by providing a comprehensive framework for power development.
- The Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was enacted to conserve and protect the existing forests in India. After the enactment of this act, all forests became the reserved property of the government. The act also provides a compensatory measure to be taken when any reserved forest is directed to non- forest purposes.
- The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act of 1977 was enacted to prevent pollution of water through agricultural, industrial and household waste. The act also regulates the cess paid on the consumption of water.
- The Wildlife Protection Act of 2002 was enacted to protect wildlife within the borders of India. The act has three main objectives – First, to establish uniform legislation for wildlife.
- The Biological Diversity Act of 2002 was enacted for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the country. This act helps bring India one step closer to the objective of realizing the equitable sharing of its biodiversity.
Second, to establish a network of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Third, to regulate the illicit trade of wildlife and its products.